1. The History of Biogeography (the science of biogeography, phylosophy and basic principles and approaches, pivotal biogeographers, examples of contemporary biogeography)
2. Phylogeography - models of speciation, phylogenetic inference, molecular clock, hostorical demography.
3. Paleogeography - dating events, geological time scales, continental drift, evolution of ocean basins (Tethys, Atlantic, Mediterranean), paleoclimates, past sea levels.
4. Island biogeography, relevance for conservation.
5. Case studies: the Atlantic/Mediterranean divide; North Atlantic phylogeography, coastal species, estuarine species; open ocean species and deep-sea species.
Basic knowledge of population genetics and evolution.
Understanding the methods used to study the phylogeography marine organisms. Evaluation factors influencing speciation and distribution patterns. Knowledge of the main geological event that shaped the planet and that influenced volume and bathymetry of main water bodies. Knowledge of the evolutionary history, distribution patterns, speciation patterns of a differentmarine organisms.